A while ago I made a tutorial on Getting WiFi Passwords With Python which provides a script that automates the following process. For those that don't want to install Python, this is how to identify stored WiFi passwords manually.
Identifying the Target Profile
First, you need to identify the profile associated with the stored WiFi connection. To do this, open the command prompt and execute the following.
netsh wlan show profiles
You should get an output that looks something like this:
User profiles ------------- All User Profile : WiFi Network 1 All User Profile : WiFi Network 2 All User Profile : WiFi Network 3 All User Profile : WiFi Network 4 All User Profile : WiFi Network 5 All User Profile : Other WiFi Network 6 All User Profile : Yet another WiFi Network 7
This output shows the associated profile for each of your stored WiFi connections. Copy or remember the exact text of the profile, e.g.
WiFi Network 2 as it will be used in the next step.
If your WiFi SSID/name is not in this list, you will not be able to identify the password as it is not a stored connection.
Obtaining the Profile's Password
In cmd again, execute the following after replacing the profile name:
netsh wlan show profile "<profile name>" key=clear
For me, I would execute
netsh wlan show profile "WiFi Network 2" key=clear as I am looking for the password associated with the profile
WiFi Network 2.
This will output some information about the network, if you go down to Security settings and look beside Key Content, you will see your WiFi password.
Security settings ----------------- Authentication : WPA2-Personal Cipher : CCMP Authentication : WPA2-Personal Cipher : GCMP Security key : Present Key Content : yourpassword! <-- here is the WiFi password